Resources and References


Community of Inquiry


Group Roles





Boettcher, J. V., & Conrad, R.-M. (2016). The online teaching survival guide: Simple and practical pedagogical tips (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons

Chang, B., & Kang, H. (2016). Challenges facing group work online. Distance Education, 37(1), 73–88.


Eberly Center: Teaching Excellence & Educational Innovation. (2020). What are the benefits of groupwork? Retrieved from


Ertmer, P. A., Sadaf, A., & Ertmer, D. J. (2011). Student–content interactions in online courses: The role of question prompts in facilitating higher-level engagement with course content. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 23(2-3), 157-186.


Fiock, H. S. (2020). Designing a community of inquiry in online courses. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 21(1), 136-153.


Garrison, D. R., T. Anderson, and W. Archer. 2000. Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education 2(2–3): 1–19.


Garrison, D.R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2001). Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computer conferencing in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 7–23


Horn, E. & Peloza, E. (2019, March 19). Demystifying online group projects.


Koh, M. H., Barbour, M., & Hill, J. R. (2010). Strategies for instructors to improve online groupwork. The Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43(2), 183-205.


Koh, M. H., & Hill, J. R. (2009). Student perceptions of group work in an online course: Benefits and challenges. Journal of Distance Education, 23, 69–91.


Lieberman, M. (2018, April 25). Group projects in online classes create connections and challenge instructors.


Moore, M. G. (1989). Editorial: Three types of interaction. The American Journal of Distance Education, 3(2), 1-6.

The POGIL Project. (2019).


Yuan, J., & Kim, C. (2014). Guidelines for facilitating the development of learning communities in online courses. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 30, 220-232.




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Promoting Instructional Excellence Copyright © by Cathleen O'Neal; Constance Harris; and Olivia Pollard is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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